It is our culture that has built many stereotype images of men and women, and over a period of time and most people accepts it as the right image.
As women are just for staying at home and take care of children and man must focus on career and take all the responsibility of the house. This stereotype has been indented into the minds of our population and needs to be dismantled. This stereotype is not only amongst men, even most women internalize their position in society as a fair description of their status through the ages.
Women can thus be described as a social category; low access to productive resources, medical facilities, educational and employment opportunities and various other social and economic discriminations faced by them.
Women play various roles from a mother to that of a breadwinner but are almost always subordinated to male authority; largely excluded from high status occupation and decision making both at work and at home.
Indian society is such where women goddesses are worshipped, but women are denied an independent socio economic-identity and status. A paradoxical situation faced in India.
In this section we will comprehensively cover various dimensions concering women , their role in society , role of women organizations etc.
With establishment of welfare state and growing influence of participatory political system , it was considered essential that the welfare of all sections of population is a prerequisite for a modern state . In this context understanding the role of women becomes important as women constitutes almost 50% of total population.
In modern society role of women had underwent a drastic transformation . This cannot be understood in absolute terms but must be understood in terms of change and continuity . India being a transitional society , traditional and modern element influence role of women in society.
Finally, restrictive role of women in society shows its presence occasionally. Following factors adversely influence the increasing role of women in society:-
1.Women and Indian caste structure?
2.FAMILY INSTITUTION: PATERILINEAL AND MATERILINEAL
Women do various types of work. Their work remains invisible, unrecognized, unpaid and not accounted for in the data for workforce participation.
Women were the major producer of food, textiles and handicrafts throughout human history and continue to provide a major labour input where production is still in the small scale subsistence sector.
Components of women’s work include housework, paid and unpaid work related to home- based craft activities, family enterprise or business and paid work outside home. The kind of work women do is determined by their position in the society and family’s status in the social hierarchy.
WORK IN HOME BASED PRODUCTION: UNPAID
LOW PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN ORGANIZED WORKFORCE
It is astonishing to know that only 20.5% women employed in organized sector as of 2011.
FEMALE CHILD LABOUR
AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
IN SERVICE SECTOR AND PROFESSIONS
Despite the prominent and high visibility of few women at all levels of political leadership women remain under-represented . There number has never gone > 20% in Lok sabha or state assemblies . One of the weakness in political strategies of women organization has been the inability to mobilize ordinary women and issues which concerned them . Lack of efforts to reach masses and expand base of women movement limited its effectiveness and agenda for action.
WOMEN AND PANCHAYTI RAJ: 1 million women entered panchayats after 73rd constitutional amendment act . 40 % represented marginalized sections and most of them had no previous political experience . So there were apprehensions regarding women being manipulated by men . Despite these apprehensions large number of women in panchayats had indeed a deep impact on gender equity.
WOMEN SAFETY IN INDIA
DECLINING SEX RATIO IN INDIA
As per the Census, 2011 the child sex ratio (0-6 years) has shown a decline from 927 females per thousand males in 2001 to 919 females per thousand males in 2011.
The government has tried to counter the declining sex ratio through initiatives like Beti Bachao, Beti Padhai; Sukanya Samriddhi Yojanaetc.
SCHEMES TO EMPOWER WOMEN BY GOI
Historically women have been subjected to discriminatory and restrictive practices which deny her equal and rightful place in society . Various social evils like dowry , prostitution , sati , parochial notions of impurity of women etc plague the society .
These problems have been recognized since ancient times and there have been efforts in this respect to tackle these problems . Role of women organization in this regard continues to be important since ancient times.
PRE INDEPENDENCE ERA
The growing economic hardships of rural poor and urban women (fifty percent of the households were below poverty level at the end of the Sixth Five Year Plan) and failure to take up women’s issues by the general agrarian and industrial workers’ movements resulted in women labourers organising separately.